The island's climate is Mediterranean, characterized by humid and mild winters and hot and dry summers. The species of flora that thrive in Kythera are resistant to hot summers and to the island's low altitude. There are approximately 800 types of floral species. Most of these plants are small shrubs such as spurge (Euphorbia characias), sage (Salvia), wild olive trees (Olea leaster), mastic trees (pistacia lentiscus), white heath, thyme (Thymus capitatus), myrtle (myrtus communis) and Etruscan honeysuckle (Lonicera etrusca). The most common trees include cedar trees (Juniperus phoenicea), carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua), plane trees (Platanus orientalis), cypresses (Cupressus sempervivens), olive trees (Oléa europaea), almond trees (Prunus dulcis) and fig trees (Ficus carica). In the course of the last century several new species were imported in Kythera, such as the pine tree and the eucalyptus. The island is also renowned for its richness of plants.
The island has a rich plant life. Plants are vital due to their therapeutic qualities and are always included in the daily diet of the people of Kythera. These include thyme, oregano, sage, chamomile, bay leaves, etc.